A subsidiary company is a separate legal entity owned and controlled by another company.

Subsidiary Company


A subsidiary company is a separate legal entity owned and controlled by another company. The parent company holds a majority stake in the subsidiary, allowing it to exercise significant control over the subsidiary’s operations and management. Despite this control, the subsidiary operates as an independent legal entity, distinct from its parent company. This legal separation means that the subsidiary can enter into contracts, own property, and be liable for its debts independently of the parent company.

Key Features of Subsidiary Companies

1. Ownership and Control: The parent company must own more than 50% of the subsidiary’s shares to have controlling interest. This ownership structure enables the parent company to influence major decisions within the subsidiary.
2. Legal Independence: While the parent company controls the subsidiary, the latter remains a separate legal entity. This separation can provide liability protection for the parent company, shielding it from direct responsibility for the subsidiary’s obligations and liabilities.
3. Operational Autonomy: Subsidiaries often have their own management teams and operational frameworks, which allows them to operate independently within the strategic direction set by the parent company.
4. Financial Reporting: Subsidiaries are required to maintain their own financial records and report their financial performance independently. However, their financials are often consolidated into the parent company’s financial statements for regulatory and reporting purposes.

Establishing an Indian Subsidiary

Setting up a subsidiary in India involves several steps and adherence to regulatory requirements. Here’s a step-by-step guide to establishing an Indian subsidiary:
1. Incorporation: The first step is incorporating the subsidiary as either a private limited company or a public limited company. This process involves obtaining a Digital Signature Certificate (DSC), Director Identification Number (DIN), and filing the necessary documents with the Registrar of Companies (ROC).
2. Naming the Subsidiary: The name of the subsidiary must comply with the naming guidelines provided by the Ministry of Corporate Affairs (MCA). It should not be identical or similar to an existing company name and should reflect the nature of the business.
3. Drafting the Memorandum and Articles of Association: These documents outline the objectives of the company and the rules governing its operations. They must be filed with the ROC during the incorporation process.
4. Share Subscription and Allotment: The parent company subscribes to the shares of the subsidiary, providing the initial capital required for its operations.
5. Compliance with Regulatory Requirements: The subsidiary must comply with various regulatory requirements, including obtaining necessary licenses and permits, registering for taxes, and adhering to labor laws.
6. Bank Account Opening: The subsidiary needs to open a bank account in India to manage its financial transactions.

Example of a Subsidiary Structure

One popular parent company in the digital industry is Facebook. Aside from being publicly traded on the open market, it also has multiple investment portfolios in other companies within the social media industry and is the parent firm of several software technology sub-companies.
Examples of Facebook sub-companies are:
  • Instagram, LLC – a photo-sharing site acquired by Facebook in April 2012 for approximately US$1B in cash and stock. Instagram remains separate in its operational management, being led by Kevin Systrom as CEO.
  • WhatsApp INC. – Facebook acquired this popular messaging application for roughly US$19.3B in 2014.
  • Oculus VR, LLC – In March 2014, Facebook agreed to buy shares, worth $2B, of virtual reality company, Oculus.

Benefits of Setting Up a Subsidiary

1. Market Expansion: Subsidiaries enable companies to enter new markets and expand their global footprint without the complexities of direct operations in foreign territories.
2. Risk Mitigation: The legal independence of a subsidiary provides a layer of protection for the parent company, limiting its exposure to financial and legal risks associated with the subsidiary’s operations.
3. Operational Efficiency: Subsidiaries can leverage local expertise and resources, improving operational efficiency and responsiveness to market changes.
4. Tax Advantages: In some cases, subsidiaries can benefit from favorable tax treatments and incentives offered by the host country.


Subsidiary companies are an essential component of modern business strategy, offering a pathway for growth, diversification, and risk management. Establishing a subsidiary in India involves navigating a structured regulatory framework, but the benefits often outweigh the challenges. For businesses looking to expand their operations and capitalize on new opportunities, understanding the intricacies of subsidiary companies is crucial.
If you need help with the incorporation, we have got you covered. Team Udyog Buddy has been satisfying a lot of businesses. And now, we’ll help you get your registration process easier with our experts and professionals who are dedicated to providing a hassle-free and affordable registration experience.

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Udyog Buddy is a team of experienced professionals, our end-to-end service model, combined with personalized support, makes the incorporation journey straightforward and stress-free. Additionally, our commitment to cost-effective solutions and time efficiency allows businesses to focus on growth and operations without unnecessary delays or financial strain. Choosing Udyog Buddy means partnering with a trusted expert dedicated to helping your business succeed from the very start.
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Disclamer: The article provided here is solely for information purposes. This is prepared based on information provided on various forums and the same has been utilized only for information of the readers. The information presented in this article does not constitute legal or professional advice and should not be relied upon for such purposes or used as a substitute for legal advice. In case of necessity, consult with professionals.